Here are steps to troubleshoot SCCM client installation with push method:
1) Make sure client push account has admin rights on target computer;
2) Make sure that firewall ports are opened on target computer https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/gg682180.aspx
3) If installation does not start on target computer, then on the SCCM server inspect %SCCM Install Directory%\Logs\ccm.log
4) If installation does not finish successfully (no Configuration Manager Control Panel icon) then on target computer inspect %windir%\ccmsetup\ccmsetup.log
5) If target computer does not communicate with SCCM server (is not shown as Active in SCCM console), then on target computer inspect ClientIDStartupManager.log, LocationServices.log, ClientLocation.log in %windir%\CCM\Logs directory!